Frogs or toads are collectively known as Amphibians. Amphibians are animals that spend part of their lives in water and part of their lives on land. What makes an amphibian unusual among the other vertebrates is its skin, which acts not only as a protective layer but also as a respiratory organ. The frogs' or toads' distinctive features include a short, often stocky body, no tail, long hind legs and short front ones, large bulging eyes and a very wide mouth.
Another distinctive characteristics of frogs or toads is their complex life cycle. With a few exceptions, frogs or toads begin life as aquatic larvae, or tadpoles and undergo a complicated series of changes called metamorphosis as they assume the form of a frog or toads. Frogs or toads depend on water not just for breeding but also for basic survival.
Malaysia is among the top 20 countries with the most amphibian species. These creatures are beneficial to mankind as they consume insects and thus provide assistance in controlling the population of pests.
Brown Tree Toad
Brown Tree Toad (Pedostibes hosii) has a large, stout body with a thick bony ridge behind the eye and connected to a small paratoid gland. The fingers are long and distinctly shaped, probably an adaptation to climbing. The top of the head is smooth and the back has a few scattered warts.
The female is bigger than the males. The males are light brown while the females are black or dark purple with a pattern of yellow spots. It can be found mostly in undisturbed forests but may be found on old secondary habitats. The species can be found in all parts of Borneo and also in Sumatra, Peninsular Malaysia and Southern Thailand.
Horned Toad (Megophrys nasuta) have specific features that are different from other types of frogs. The "horn" is a very wide , pointed triangular projection from the edge of the eyelid. The hind legs are shorter that the front legs and normally males are substantially smaller than females. The colour is light clay to reddish brown with one or two dark spots on the back.
Using its leaf-like appearance for camouflage, the Horned Toad is virtually undetectable in the leaf litter of the forest unless it moves. This animal is perfectly designed to fit in with its surroundings.
This species live in flat to steep rain forest with thick bamboo where the area is damp and cool and is commonly found throughout Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia.
Spotted Tree Frog
This type of frog (Nyctixalus pictus) is small with relatively long snout and long hind limbs. The skin on the back , head and the upper surface of the limbs is rough with many small spiny bumps. The body is reddish cinnamon brown or pale red, with white spots scattered on its back, along the edge of the snout and even on the upper eyelid.
The upper half of the iris of the eye is white while the lower half is brown. This is one of the most distinctly coloured and cannot be mistaken for any other species. The female is slightly larger than the male.
The Spotted Tree Frog lives in primary and old secondary forest and can be found most often in hilly terrain near water in all parts of Borneo except Brunei.