Technical Details

Date of Issue : 10th May 2010

Stamp Value :  30 sen (2 Designs) & 50 sen (2 Designs)

Sheet Content : 20 Stamps

Miniature Sheet Size : RM5

First Day Cover Value : 30 Sen

Perforation 14

Paper Watermarked SPM, Phosphor Coated

Printing Process Lithography

Printer : Percetakan Keselamatan Nasional Sdn. Bhd.

Designer : World Communications Network Resources (M) S/B





Fireflies are beetles and are locally known as 'kelip-kelip', 'kunang-kunang' or 'api-api'. Approximately2,000 known firefly species can be found all over the world and about half are found predominantly in tropical rainforests. In Malaysia there are many types of fireflies. Fireflies can be differentiated by their flash pattern, colour of the light, behavior, size, colour and shape of sexes, larvae, habitat, just to name a few. There are also daytime fireflies, which do not produce light at all or some female fireflies that do not even fly.


Fireflies are insects that enjoy humid environments and love moisture. They thrive in the moist forests, fields, as high as 1500 metres, in urban parks, near ponds, streams, lakes and rivers. Most fireflies are nocturnal insects and come out just after sunset.


The life-cycle of fireflies begins from the egg, through several larvae instars, pupates and eventually becomes an adult firefly. Most firefly larvae live on land but some live in water. The larva is a predator and eats other small invertebrates like tiny snails and earthworms. It will secrete a digestive enzyme and then feed on the liquefied innards of the prey. The adult fireflies never feed as their duty is to mate. The general life span of the Pteroptyx tener firefly is around 4 to 7 months.


The main attraction in the firefly is the light it produces. The colour of the light varies according to its species. The light is actually the result of a bio-chemical reaction at the light organs near the end of its abdomen. The gender can be differentiated by the light organs.


The flash patterns of fireflies vary according to their species. 'The light flashes are a communication tool for mating purposes. The light produced by fireflies is the most efficient in the world with most of the energy is released as light, thus being referred to as "cold light".


Fireflies can be found after sunset on tall grasses or leaves. They begin flashing approximately an hour after sun set. The neighboring fireflies will copy each other to produce the same flash patterns. The flashing is strongest during the first 2-3 hours and will gradually decrease and finally end after sunrise. The end result, the flash pattern and rate of the neighboring trees are in perfect flash synchrony and create a magnificent display which is a main attraction to local and foreign tourists.




Firefly 2010 - Set of 4 Stamps

MNH Set of 4 Stamps

Price - USD1.10

This stamp issuance features several species found in Malaysia. The most unique genus in Malaysia, that is the congregating fireflies, Pteroptyx spp., is featured in the 30sen stamp and Miniature Sheet. The congregating fireflies of the Pteroptyx species are found in Malaysia and in the South East Asian region. There are currently 8 identified species of Pteroptyx fireflies in Malaysia. Some of these Pteroptyx fireflies group together and flash synchronously and some group together but do not flash synchronously. Pteroptyx valida and Pteroptyx bearni are non synchronizers and is featured in the 30sen stamps whereas the 'famous' synchronous firefly, Pteroptyx tener, is featured in the Miniature Sheet.

In Malaysia, there are many rivers where thousands on this species group together along the inter-tidal mangrove rivers such as Kuala Selangor, where the fireflies display themselves on the 'berembang’ or Sonneratia caseolaris display trees along the river like 'Christmas trees'. The Miniature Sheet is very unique as at the bottom of the firefly's abdomen where light is emitted is printed using a special transparent holographic foil to reflect a real firefly flashing at night.


The 5Osen stamps on the other hand feature Lychnuris sp., a common firefly with a half moon head shield (pronotum) which is found at the forest edge, plantations and parks. The female of the Lychnuris is in larviform and cannot fly, using both lights and pheromones to attract each other. On the other hand, Diaphanes sp., has a bigger head shield and can be found in the highlands, like on Frasers Hill, Pahang. These two fireflies are called 'rovers', they do not congregate but fly singly and rove around the forest to look for females. There are many different type of roving fireflies in Malaysia.


Fireflies in many areas are fast disappearing due to their habitats being destroyed to .make way for development. Protection of the ecosystem, promotion for ecotourism and together, with public awareness is much needed for the conservation of fireflies and their habitats.





(20v x 4 sheets)

Price - USD22.00


Miniature Sheet

Firefly 2010 - Miniature Sheet

Price - USD2.90



First Day Cover

Set of Two Covers

Stamps & M/S

Firefly 2010 - FDC x 2 (Stamps & MS)

Price - USD3.90



Firefly 2010 - Folder

Price USD5.90


Medical Excellence

Malayan Railway